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Why is a flask never distilled to dryness?

NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. The most common methods of distillation are simple distillation and fractional distillation. Simple distillation can be used when the liquids to be separated have boiling points that are quite different.

What could happen if you overheat the solution in the flask?

An overheated flask may cause bumping and may give you an observed boiling point that is too high due to superheating the solution. Piling up or scraping away some sand from the flask will allow you to adjust the rate of heating.

What bumping means?

bump verb (HIT) to hit something with force: She bumped into his tray, knocking the food onto his lap. B2 [ T usually + adv/prep ] to hurt part of your body by hitting it against something hard: I bumped my head on the shelf as I stood up..

Why are anti-bumping granules used in oxidation of ethanol?

Why are anti-bumping granules used when heating under reflux/in distillation? To allow smooth boiling. They prevent the appearance of bubbles caused by vapour in the hot liquid which would cause splashing up the sides of the flask. What happens when you oxidise ethanol under reflux?

What does heating under reflux mean?

To address this, heating under reflux is used. This refers to heating a solution with an attached condenser to prevent reagents from escaping. As seen above, any vapor will condense on the cool surface of the attached condenser and flow back into the flask.

What is the reflux technique?

Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. It is used in industrial and laboratory distillations. It is also used in chemistry to supply energy to reactions over a long period of time.

What happens during a reflux?

Acid reflux occurs when the sphincter muscle at the lower end of your esophagus relaxes at the wrong time, allowing stomach acid to back up into your esophagus. This can cause heartburn and other signs and symptoms. Frequent or constant reflux can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

What happens to vapors when they come in contact with a reflux condenser?

Reflux involves heating the chemical reaction for a specific amount of time, while continually cooling the vapour produced back into liquid form, using a condenser. The vapours produced above the reaction continually undergo condensation, returning to the flask as a condensate.